Cadmium retention and distribution in contaminated soil: effects and interactions of soil properties, contamination level, aging time and in situ immobilization agents
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AuthorsMarković, Jelena P.
Jović, Mihajlo D.
Smičiklas, Ivana D.
Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z.
Popović, Aleksandar R.
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As soil cadmium (Cd) contamination becomes a serious concern and one of the significant environmental pollution issues all over the world, knowledge of the basic chemistry, origin, inputs, sources, quantity, chemical forms, reactions, as well as the fate and transport of Cd in different types of soil is crucial for better understanding Cd bioavailability, health risks and remedial options. This study aimed to increase the current knowledge on the complex interdependence between the factors affecting behavior, transport and fate of Cd in the soil and to test and compare the performance of the stabilization agents in different soil types. Soils demonstrated various sorption affinity and capacity for Cd accumulation, which proved to be positively correlated with soil pH and the cation exchange capacity (CEC). With increasing levels of contamination, sequential extraction analysis showed the highest increase of relative Cd amounts in the exchangeable fraction regardless of the soil propert...ies, suggesting that added Cd is principally associated with the easily accessible and mobile fraction. For different initial Cd concentrations and soil types, Cd sorption reached the quasi-equilibrium within 24 h of contact. Prolonged aging (two months) influenced the natural stabilization of Cd in all types of soil, but only at low contamination level. The application of both, conventional (slaked lime Ca(OH)(2)) and alternative phosphate-rich (annealed bovine bones B-400) amendments, resulted in Cd relocation and reduction of exchangeable Cd content. Although the effect was smaller when apatite amendment was utilized, observed redistribution of Cd to more stable soil fractions is preferable for achieving long-term stabilization. Cd concentrations extracted in exchangeable and acid soluble fractions after the treatments of contaminated soil samples suggest that the practical applicability of in situ immobilization depends on the soil properties and the level of contamination, as well as that effect, should be monitored for the possible re-mobilization of Cd.
Keywords:Cadmium / Contamination levels / Soil types / Aging time / Speciation / Chemical immobilization
Source:Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2019, 174, 305-314
- Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science, San Diego
Funding / projects:
- info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/Integrated and Interdisciplinary Research (IIR or III)/43009/RS// (RS-43009)