Bioreactor studies of native and tissue engineered cartilage
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Functional tissue engineering of cartilage involves the use of bioreactors designed to provide a controlled in vitro environment that embodies some of the biochemical and physical signals known to regulate chondrogenesis. Hydrodynamic conditions can affect in vitro tissue formation in at least two ways: by direct effects of hydrodynamic forces on cell morphology and function, and by indirect flow-induced changes in mass transfer of nutrients and metabolites. In the present work, we discuss the effects of three different in vitro environments: static flasks (tissues fixed in place, static medium), mixed flasks (tissues fixed in place, unidirectional turbulent flow) and rotating bioreactors (tissues dynamically suspended in laminar flow) on engineered cartilage constructs and native cartilage explants. As compared to static and mixed flasks, dynamic laminar flow in rotating bioreactors resulted in the most rapid tissue growth and the highest final fractions of glycosaminoglycans and tota...l collagen in both tissues. Mechanical properties (equilibrium modulus, dynamic stiffness, hydraulic permeability) of engineered constructs and explanted cartilage correlated with the wet weight fractions of glycosaminoglycans and collagen. Current research needs in the area of cartilage tissue engineering include the utilization of additional physiologically relevant regulatory signals, and the development of predictive mathematical models that enable optimization of the conditions and duration of tissue culture.
Izvor:Biorheology, 2002, 39, 1-2, 259-268
- IOS Press, Amsterdam