Freeze vs. Spray Drying for Dry Wild Thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) Extract Formulations: The Impact of Gelatin as a Coating Material
Levic, Steva M.
Pavlović, Vladimir B.
Markovic, Smilja B.
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Freeze drying was compared with spray drying regarding feasibility to process wild thyme drugs in order to obtain dry formulations at laboratory scale starting from liquid extracts produced by different extraction methods: maceration and heat-, ultrasound-, and microwave-assisted extractions. Higher total powder yield (based on the dry weight prior to extraction) was achieved by freeze than spray drying and lower loss of total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) due to the drying process. Gelatin as a coating agent (5% w/w) provided better TPC recovery by 70% in case of lyophilization and higher total powder yield in case of spray drying by diminishing material deposition on the wall of the drying chamber. The resulting gelatin-free and gelatin-containing powders carried polyphenols in amount similar to 190 and 53-75 mg gallic acid equivalents GAE/g of powder, respectively. Microwave-assisted extract formulation was distinguished from the others by a higher conte...nt of polyphenols, proteins and sugars, higher bulk density and lower solubility. The type of the drying process mainly affected the position of the gelatin-derived -OH and amide bands in FTIR spectra. Spray-dried formulations compared to freeze-dried expressed higher thermal stability as confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and a higher diffusion coefficient; the last feature can be associated with the lower specific surface area of irregularly shaped freeze-dried particles (151-223 mu m) compared to small microspheres (similar to 8 mu m) in spray-dried powder.
Keywords:encapsulation / freeze drying / gelatin / polyphenols / spray drying
Source:Molecules, 2021, 26, 13
Funding / projects:
- info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/inst-2020/200003/RS// (RS-200003)
- info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/inst-2020/200135/RS// (RS-200135)
- info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/inst-2020/200287/RS// (RS-200287)