Adsorption of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, and 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol from water onto modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon cryogel, and carbonized hydrothermal carbon
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Carbon materials of different structural and textural properties (multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon cryogel, and carbonized hydrothermal carbon) were used as adsorbents for the removal of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, and 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol from aqueous solutions. Chemical modification and/or activation were applied to alter surface characteristics and to increase the adsorption and desorption efficiency of carbon materials. Surfaces of treated and untreated carbon materials were characterized through the examination of the textural properties, the nature of surface functional groups, and surface acidity. It was found that the adsorption capacity of tested carbon materials is not directly proportional to the specific surface area and the content of surface oxygen groups. However, a high ratio of surface mesoporosity affected the adsorption process most prominently, by increasing adsorption capacity and the rate of the adsorption process. Adsorption of estrone, 17 beta-estradio...l, and 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model, while the equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted with the Langmuir isotherm model. Calculated mean adsorption energy values, along with the thermodynamic parameters, indicated that removal of selected hormones was dominated by the physisorption mechanism. High values of adsorption efficiency (88-100 %) and Langmuir adsorption capacities (29.45-194.7 mg/g) imply that examined materials, especially mesoporous carbon cryogel and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, can be used as powerful adsorbents for relatively fast removal of estrogen hormones from water.
Keywords:Carbon cryogel / Multi-walled carbon nanotubes / Hydrothermal carbon / Surface modification / Adsorption / Estrogenic hormones
Source:Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2022, 29, 3, 4431-4445
Funding / projects:
- info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/inst-2020/200287/RS// (RS-200287)
- info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/inst-2020/200135/RS// (RS-200135)
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