Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Characteristics of Copper Coatings Obtained by Various Electrodeposition Processes
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AuthorsMladenovic, Ivana O.
Boskovic, Marko V.
Vuksanović, Marija M.
Nikolić, Nebojša D.
Lamovec, Jelena S.
Vasiljevic-Radovic, Dana G.
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Mechanical (hardness and adhesion) and electrical (sheet resistance) characteristics of electrolytically produced copper coatings have been investigated. Morphologies of Cu coatings produced galvanostatically at two current densities from the basic sulfate electrolyte and from an electrolyte containing levelling/brightening additives without and with application of ultrasound for the electrolyte stirring were characterized by SEM and AFM techniques. Mechanical characteristics were examined by Vickers microindentation using the Chen-Gao (C-G) composite hardness model, while electrical characteristics were examined by the four-point probe method. Application of ultrasound achieved benefits on both hardness and adhesion of the Cu coatings, thereby the use of both the larger current density and additive-free electrolyte improved these mechanical characteristics. The hardness of Cu coatings calculated according to the C-G model was in the 1.1844-1.2303 GPa range for fine-grained Cu coatings... obtained from the sulfate electrolyte and in the 0.8572-1.1507 GPa range for smooth Cu coatings obtained from the electrolyte with additives. Analysis of the electrical characteristics of Cu coatings after an aging period of 4 years showed differences in the sheet resistance between the top and the bottom sides of the coating, which is attributed to the formation of a thin oxide layer on the coating surface area.
Keywords:copper / electrodeposition / morphology / microstructure / composite hardness / adhesion / critical reduced depth / sheet resistance
Source:Electronics, 2022, 11, 3
Funding / projects:
- info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/inst-2020/200017/RS// (RS-200017)
- info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/inst-2020/200026/RS// (RS-200026)
- info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/inst-2020/200135/RS// (RS-200135)